Help Sheet

Problem and Brief

1 sheet

Problem: Explain and show clearly what the problem is. Use notes, sketches and photo's. Remember, do not suggest solutions.

Brief: Must start with the words "Design and Make." Remember, do not suggest solutions yet. keep the brief wide, and identify the main areas of the problem. What you want your design to do.

Existing Products

At least 2 sheets\use photographs, cuttings from magazines and specialist magazines. Shov examples of products available at present which fit the brief. Write what you like or dislike about each product, thinking about cost, materials, fixtures, construction and whether it will do the job. Becritical.

Questionnaire

On one sheet you should show your questionnaire with 10 questions, each one with possible answers and a tally of results. Use a computer.

Graphs
2 sheets
A minimum of six graphs showing the main results of your questionnaire. Use Bar Chart; Pie Charts, Pictograms and Line Graphs etc. Use a computer. Each graph needs a label and the Question.

Write a conclusion to each question saying what you are going to do now based on the results.

Environment

1 or 2 sheets
Show where the object is going to go. Include details. How much space available? Who is going to use it? What size are they? (Anthropometric Data) How will it be used? Give details of size of space and people who will use it.

Technical Information

1 or 2 sheets
Information that will help in the design for example:

  • Methods of printing
  • Types of materials
  • Weather-proofing
  • Fitting Adjustment
  • Surface finishes

Product Analysis

At least 2 sheets
In each of the following sections refer to your research then discuss -and decide what you intend to do. Here are some common design factors: use the headings in bold for your section titles. "In the research I found that................ " It should say why the research was useful.

1. Function

This is the job which the design will have to do (specified by the design brief.) The main job your design has to do is called primary function, and any others, the secondary function. For example, the primary function of a chair is to support people safely in a sitting position, but depending exactly where it is to be used, it may also have to look attractive, be easy Lo clean. match other furniture in the room, support people at the correct height for sitting at a able etc.

2. Safety

There arc many safety points. These might include :
Toxicity - Avoid using toxic materials where they are likely to cause danger, (eg do not use lead based paints on toys.)
Small parts - These must be considered when designing for children.
Sharp corners - Design smooth rounded shapes whenever possible.
and edges
Stability - Make sure that things cannot easily be knocked over.
Fire hazards - You must not use materials which are likely to catch Fire easily, give off dangerous fumes, or melt during normal use.
Relate to the research.

3. Materials

These must be suitable for the job they have to do and should also be appropriate to the environment in which they are used. Each of the materials available to us has its own
properties and limitations. Write about each material that may be useful and consider its good and bad points.

4. Construction

Using the research sheets suggest which construction methods have been used. Which of these methods are suitable for your design. Think about the processes employed, materials, and facilities used. Make sure that it is possible to make your design with the resources available. Which methods are most likely to be used in your design.

5. Aesthetics (appearance)

This is a very important factor because there are few situations in which we do not consider the appearance of design, and its effect on its environment. Appearance is also the first characteristic of an artifact which most people notice. We should therefore remember that: The appearance should suit the nature of the job an artifact has to do. The appearance should suit the environment in which the artifact will be used. The overall appearance will depend on the will depend on the materials that are used and the finishes which have been applied to them. Colour and texture can play a very important part/role in the overall effect of an artifact. Explain how you can make your designs appearance effective what methods are you have seen used in the research. Consider size, proportion, shape.

6. Ergonomics and Anthropometric Data

Anthropometrics Data

These are tables of human dimensions. Since the purpose of design is to make life better in some way for human beings, it is reasonable to expect that many design investigations will involve the study and measurements for people, for example, the different sitting positions, and the range of measurements of the different people likely to use the chair.

Ergonomics

Is the use of anthropometric data to design things which are comfortable and easy to use. Using the size data to get the design right. Relate to the research.

7. Cost

Decide how much you can afford to spend on your design, then show that you have considered all the factors affecting your design - labour charges, material costs, equipment
fittings etc. Relate to the research.

8. Features

What features will your design have eg. kitchen, what kind of appliances will you have, what will make your design special. Relate to the research.

Specification 1

1 sheet
Make a list of a least 10 points that your design will do, have, or be. These arc important as they must be used lor future ideas, development and evaluation work.

Industrial Specification

Now write a specification lor the client, manufacturer, user. Each one will have a different viewpoint. See additional sheet.

First Ideas

At least 2 sheets.
Sketch quickly the largest number and range of possible ideas. Include comments, be adventurous. Colour just the four you like best. Completely fill the sheets!

Detailed Ideas

2 sheets.
Select the four most suitable and draw in more detail. Explain why you like the ideas. What developments will you make?

Modelling Ideas

You must try out at least one idea in card, foam or balsa. This may help you to improve your idea. Write up the results. Take pictures, add to sheets.

Development Of Appearance

2 sheets.
Choose one idea and draw it small. Select the parts that need improving. Draw at least 3 alternatives that show your improvement eg. A range of different shaped legs on a table and notes. By the end of this section you should know exactly what your design will look like.

Development Of Construction

2 sheets.
Draw your chosen idea. Draw and comment on methods of constructing your model. How will you make it and how will it be put together. Indicate with reasons, your final decisions. At the end of this section you should know all of the details required to make it eg. materials, sizes, jointing, fitting, finishes.

FINAL DESIGN

1 sheet A3 or A2
(3D)
Large coloured 3D drawing of your design (in it's environment.)

Working Drawing

I sheet A3 or A2.
Orthographic scaled drawing showing all necessary details, to make your design. Include all details of size, materials, and joints or construction. Use British Standards for dimensions.

Industrial Links (see attached sheets)

Draw your design in the centre of a sheet.
Around the outside discuss, evaluate any changes that would be necessary if the object were to be mass produced. Discuss machines, processes, materials, division of labour etc. At one side, show the notes on methods of production we covered in class. Then show which method of production would be suitable for 100and 1000 units.

Method Of Production

At one side, show the notes on methods of production we covered in class. Then show which method of production would be suitable for 100 and 1000 units.

Plan Of Making

1 sheet.
Planning the production of your model. Flow chart showing the stages needed for construction. Give details of tools, equipment, processes, and time needed. Input - process -
output.

Evaluation

1 sheet
You should have made evaluation comments at all stages throughout the project. For the final evaluation you must write at least a paragraph on each of the following.
Restate your brief. Say how well your final design solves the problem.

1. Explain how you have met each of your specification points. You must give reasons how, why, and give examples.

2. Explain the good points.

3. Explain the bad points with future modifications.

4. Quotes from other people can be useful.

written by Mr R Battersby

 

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